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In 1964 I set out to buy my first Western big-game rifle. I was about to graduate from forestry college, and my father-in-law instructed me to go to a small sporting-goods store in Vernal, Utah, and pick out any gun I wanted. It would be my graduation gift.

My heart was set on a Winchester Model 70 in .270 caliber. Having been a big Jack O'Connor fan as long as I could remember, that Winchester was the only gun I'd consider. I was disappointed to learn that they had no .270s in the pre-'64-version Model 70, though there was a .30/06 and some brand-new Model 70s in .270 caliber. The clerk suggested I purchase the .30/06, since the newer rifles hadn't been really tested thoroughly. I took his advice and bought the rifle; I never regretted it. That gun, which I named Bertha, accounted for more than 100 head of big game, including 19 elk.

Over the years I've heard my share of discussions regarding elk rifles. In fact, the most common question I get from readers is my opinion on the best rifle for their first elk hunt. Usually, my response is the same. I recommend that the hunter use whatever rifle he's accustomed to for whitetails at home, though there are some exceptions. Then too, many first-time elk hunters live in states that allow only shotguns or muzzleloaders for deer. Those folks must start from scratch when considering an elk rifle.

Is there truly a perfect gun for elk? Let's put it this way: Any centerfire caliber will put down an elk if the animal is hit in the right place. But we're talking optimum here: the best of the best, the mother of all elk rifles. How about it? An elk is a big animal; an average mature bull weighs in at around 700 pounds. You've probably heard that elk are tenacious, which means they're capable of taking a hard hit and staying on their feet. Measuring elk against most other big-game animals, I'd say that's true, but an elk shot in the vitals will not make it very far, if anywhere. An animal hit through the lungs or heart may travel 100 yards at best. The key, therefore, is to use a firearm that will place the bullet precisely where it needs to go. That's a no-brainer, but unfortunately, hunting poses some profound complications.

When you hunt, for example, you might have only a second or two to make a shot. To make matters worse, the target might be moving, partially screened by foliage, standing at an awkward angle or farther away than you're used to shooting. Your ability to make a precise shot can be foiled by any of those factors, or perhaps simply because you are excited or out of breath. In any of those scenarios, you'll be in a dilemma if the bullet doesn't achieve its goal. And therein lies a problem: Your bullet has penetrated a poor area--will it be able to get in and finish the job?

To make the shot accurate in the first place, you must have a gun that performs for you. For that to happen, you must be comfortable shooting your firearm and have confidence that you can hit what you're aiming at. That's why I was so fond of my .30/06. It was my buddy; I loved the way it felt, the way it looked, the way it shot. It was like my right arm, and if I missed what I was shooting at I knew it was entirely my fault, and not my rifle's. And it flat-out killed elk.

Jack Atcheson Sr., one of the first worldwide hunting consultants and a frequent hunting companion of Jack O'Connor, my colleague Jim Carmichel and myself, has hunted extensively around the globe. Jack's gun of choice is a .338 Win. Mag., which he uses for everything from pronghorn antelope on the Montana prairie to Cape buffalo in Africa. This gun, like Bertha, looks as if it's been through both World Wars and every conflict since, but he wouldn't think of using anything else. He's killed dozens of elk with it and makes no bones about it being the perfect elk rifle. And for him, it most certainly is.

On the other hand, I know a hunter who uses a .243 for elk. Too light? I believe so, and I'd never recommend it. But I know the hunter well; he never takes a shot unless it's perfect, and has turned down plenty of animals because conditions were wrong. If I were pinned down and asked my opinion on the minimum caliber for elk, I'd have to say the .270 Win., but only with a 150-grain bullet and only if the shot provides unobstructed access to a vital area. I've seen elk struck in the heavy shoulder bone by lighter bullets from a .270 and survive because the projectiles failed to penetrate. My favorite bullets over the years include the Remington Core-Lokt, Winchester Silvertip, Federal Trophy Bonded Bear Claw and Nosler Partition. Of all these bullets, I've taken more than half my elk with the Core-Lokt.

When elk hunting, you may need to make a long shot delivered with exacting accuracy. This requirement rules out some calibers that are inherently inferior when reaching out over a distance. The eminently popular .30/30 fits that category, as does the .35 Rem., and other short-range cartridges.

For years I'd been intrigued by the 7mm Rem. Mag. I acquired one, in a Browning A-bolt, a dozen years ago and took about 10 elk with it. Then I started using other calibers, and guns with actions different from the bolt, my hands-down favorite. As I've indicated, any rifle from a .270 on up will nicely dispatch an elk. But is there one that stands above all others? I believe the perfect elk rifle should be light enough to be carried comfortably over rough terrain and for long hours. A firearm that weighs 7 to 8 pounds when scoped and loaded is my preference. Though it might seem that a 10-pound rifle isn't too heavy at the outset, those extra 2 pounds will feel more like 12 after a few hours of hiking.

A scope is an absolute must. You may need to drill a bullet through small holes in the timber, or make a precision shot at 300 yards. Bertha was equipped with a 4X power scope, and that's still my favorite today, though I've used a number of variable scopes, especially the 3-9X power. I like a dot reticle or simple crosshairs. I don't like scopes that have all sorts of range-estimation scales or high-tech compensators. Most of the time when I'm pulling up on an elk I don't have time to think about the bells and whistles in the scope. I know what my gun is sighted at, I make a quick yardage estimate and I hold the crosshairs accordingly.

For years I fought the trend toward synthetic stocks. Being a traditionalist, I figured I'd never abandon the wooden stocks that I grew up with. Attitudes change with time, however, and now I prefer a synthetic stock. It's lighter than wood, it's more accurate because it isn't affected by weather, and heaven help me, I find it attractive.

The action is a major consideration. For me, bolt action wins hands-down. It's strong, simple, easily cleaned, extremely accurate, and can be quickly extracted from the firearm when you're traveling, instantly proving to an airline clerk that the gun is inoperable. Bolt-actions have been the choice of most serious Western big-game hunters as long as I can remember, with Winchester Model 70s and Remington Model 700s leading the pack by a long way. I have no issue with pumps or carbines, but I do have a problem with semi-autos. I've seen many jam, especially in cold weather. I can recall at least six instances where a temporarily incapacitated semi-auto has cost a hunter an elk.

But to answer the most-asked question--what's my choice for caliber? I've shot a bunch of elk with different calibers, but I have to confess that I'm currently enamored of the new .300 Rem. Short Action Ultra Mag. I have it chambered in my Remington Model 7, and the caliber has impressed me to the point that I keep grabbing the M-7 from the gun case when I go hunting. So far that rifle has accounted for two moose, three bears, a half-dozen deer and, finally, after a lifetime of hunting, it claimed the first elk I'd ever taken with any Remington. I took the bull last year, and he went down so hard I couldn't believe it. So did the moose and bears. The short-action is light enough that it allows easier mobility in rugged terrain and dense vegetation, and its short barrel makes it easy to maneuver in brush.

The .300 Win. Mag. has certainly proven itself in the elk woods over the years, and the new Remington .300 Ultra Mag. is drawing rave reviews, but the stubby short-action cartridge deserves serious consideration. I intend to keep the rifle where I can quickly reach it for a bunch more elk hunts. But I'll always keep an open mind for whatever else comes down the pike. Perfection, like a trophy, is in the eye of the beholder.

What makes a perfect elk rifle?

Here are some of the features Jim Zumbo likes about his Model 7 Remington AWR.

--Recoil pad to help tame the bite of hefty elk calibers --Comfortable sling for long days afield --Bolt action for reliability and accuracy --Weather-resistant synthetic stock to increase accuracy --Overall weight, scoped and loaded, of 7 to 8 pounds --Variable 3-9X scope to handle any elk-hunting situation


Why are these cartridges good elk rounds? They're flat-shooting for long-range work and deliver good penetration on less-than-ideal shot angles.

.270 WIN (Remington 150-gr. Core-Lokt)

The classic Jack O'Connor caliber is about the lightest I'd go with for elk. The 130-gr. bullet was Jack's favorite all-around game taker. He killed plenty of elk with it but I wouldn't recommend anything smaller than the 150-gr. bullet. I've seen too many elk only wounded with lighter bullets.

.270 Win. Muzzle 100 yd. 200 yd. 300 yd. 400 yd. 500 yd. Velocity 2,850 2,504 2,183 1,886 1,618 1,385 (fps) Energy 2,705 2,087 1,587 1,185 872 639 (ft.-lb.) Trajectory - 2 0 -9.4 -28.6 -61.2 (inches)

7MM REM. MAG. (Federal 175-gr. Grand Slam)

I've killed at least 10 elk with this caliber and have never had any problems, but I feel you don't get as much downrange killing power as you do with the bigger magnums. For a long time my Browning A-Bolt in this caliber was my favorite all-around rifle for elk.

7mm Rem. Muzzle 100 yd. 200 yd. 300 yd. 400 yd. 500 yd. Mag. Velocity 2,860 2,670 2,480 2,300 2,130 1,970 (fps) Energy 3,180 2,760 2,390 2,055 1,760 1,500 (ft.-lb.) Trajectory - 1.7 0 -7.4 -21.3 -43 (inches)

.30/06 (Winchester 180-gr. Silvertip)

My first elk rifle was chambered in this caliber and over the years I took 19 elk with it. The Winchester Silvertip was my bullet of choice for a long time and I never had any problems with performance. It always had good expansion and it did the job.

.30/06 Muzzle 100 yd. 200 yd. 300 yd. 400 yd. 500 yd. Velocity 2,700 2,469 2,250 2,042 1,846 1,663 (fps) Energy 2,913 2,463 2,023 1,666 1,362 1,105 (ft.-lb.) Trajectory - 2.4 0 -9.3 -27 -54.9 (inches)

.300 WIN. MAG. (Winchester 180-gr. Fail Safe)

This is a good all-around caliber for North American big game, including big bears if you're so inclined. This is probably the optimum caliber for elk; its popularity throughout the West attests to its effectiveness. Although the caliber's recoil has intimidated some shooters in the past, today's muzzlebrakes and recoil pads can tame it for just about anybody's use.

.300 Win. Muzzle 100 yd. 200 yd. 300 yd. 400 yd. 500 yd. Mag. Velocity 2,960 2,732 2,514 2,307 2,110 1,923 (fps) Energy 3,503 2,983 2,528 2,129 1,780 1,478 (ft.-lb.) Trajectory - 1.6 0 -7.1 -20.7 -42.1 (inches)

.300 REM. SAUM (Remington 150-gr. PSP Core-Lokt Ultra)

This is my current favorite elk cartridge. Since it was introduced a couple of years ago I have seen what it can do on several moose, black bears, deer and elk. I've never seen animals go down with such authority as when struck by this cartridge-and-bullet combo.

300 Rem. Muzzle 100 yd. 200 yd. 300 yd. 400 yd. 500 yd. SAUM Velocity 3,200 2,901 2,622 2,359 2,112 1,880 (fps) Energy 3,410 2,803 2,290 1,854 1,485 1,177 (ft.-lb.) Trajectory - 1.3 0 -6.4 -19.1 -39.6 (inches)

.338 WIN MAG (Winchester 230-gr. Fail Safe)

Many consider this the ultimate magnum for Western big game, including brown bears. The .338 has a loyal following among die-hard hunters who don't shy away from recoil and noise. Anything larger than this caliber for elk borders on overkill in my opinion.

.338 Win. Muzzle 100 yd. 200 yd. 300 yd. 400 yd. 500 yd. Mag. Velocity 2,780 2,573 2,375 2,186 2,005 1,834 (fps) Energy 3,948 3,382 2,881 2,441 2,054 1,719 (ft.-lb.) Trajectory - 1.9 0 -8.1 -23.4 -47.4 (inches)


Whether you're a penny-pinching miser or an old-money scion, there's a "perfect" elk rifle among these picks that deserves a place in your gun safe.


Caliber: .270 Win. Magazine capacity: 5 Weight: 6 lb. 11 oz. Finish: Stainless Stock: Synthetic Barrel length: 22" Rate of twist: 1 in 10" Overall length: 42 3/4"

JARRETT WIND-WALKER ($5,300; 803-471-3616;

Caliber: .300 Jarrett Magazine capacity: 2 Weight: 7 lb. 4 oz. (scoped) Finish: Phenolic resin Stock: Synthetic Barrel length: 24" Rate of twist: 1 in 12" Overall length: 46 1/2"

REMINGTON 710 ($425; 800-243-9700;

Caliber: .30/06 Magazine capacity: 4 Weight: 7 lb. 2 oz. Finish: Blued Stock: Synthetic Barrel length: 22" Rate of twist: 1 in 10" Overall length: 42 1/2"

RUGER M77 ALL-WEATHER ($759; 603-865-2442;

Caliber: .338 Win. Mag Magazine capacity: 3 Weight: 7 lb. Finish: Stainless Stock: Synthetic Barrel length: 24" Rate of twist: 1 in 10" Overall length: 44 5/8"

SAVAGE WEATHER WARRIOR ($520; 413-568-7001;

Caliber: 7mm Rem. Mag. Magazine capacity: 3 Weight: 7 lb. Finish: Stainless Stock: Synthetic Barrel length: 24" Rate of twist: 1 in 9.5" Overall length: 44 1/2"


Caliber: .300 Win. Mag. Magazine capacity: 3 Weight: 7 lb. 8 oz. Finish: Stainless Stock: Synthetic Barrel length: 26" Rate of twist: 1 in 10" Overall length: 46 3/4"

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