At the time, Jeanneney, a history professor, was breeding wirehaired dachshunds of German hunting stock. He knew the breed was used for tracking in Europe, so he applied to New York State's Department of Environmental Conservation for a research permit to investigate the feasibility of using leashed tracking dogs to find wounded deer in his state. After much persistence and the intervention of Bill Wadsworth, a pioneer of legalized bowhunting in the northeast, the permit was granted in 1976. Jeanneney would need help, so others were added as "designated agents." This group became Deer Search Inc., the organization ultimately responsible for the legalization of tracking in New York in 1986. Since then, 11 other states have come on board. Counting those Southern states, plus California and Nebraska, where it was already legal, about 20 states now permit tracking in some form. Rules vary strangely. Even though 25 to 50 percent of wounded deer are found alive, Wisconsin, Michigan and Indiana do not allow firearms while tracking. Illinois allows tracking after dark on private property, but no firearms after legal hunting hours. Jeanneney says about 1 percent of wounded deer will charge a dog and that it usually occurs at night, especially when the animal has a broken leg, not an organ wound.