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The Costs of Owning a Gun, a State-by-State Permit Breakdown

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March 27, 2013
The Costs of Owning a Gun, a State-by-State Permit Breakdown - 20

In an interview last month with Field & Stream's Editor-in-Chief Anthony Licata, Vice President Joe Biden expressed surprise that it costs more than "about 14 bucks" in some states and many individual jurisdictions to legally own a firearm.

Biden, apparently, did not realize 21 states and many counties/cities conduct their own beyond-NICS checks for all gun sales, issue their own permits, compile their own gun registries and levy their own fees.
   
In fact, in five states, it can cost anywhere from $5 to $100 just to be "eligible" to purchase or possess a firearm. In states with weak pre-emption laws, such as Illinois, New York, local governments can impose layers of permitting or licensing fees on residents before they can legally own any type of firearm, including long guns.
   
So, in some places, legally owning any type of firearm can be an expensive proposition. For instance, according to IllinoisCarry.com, the initial cost to legally own a firearm -- even a shotgun -- in Chicago ranges up to $900. New York City residents must purchase a $140 shotgun/rifle permit to legally own a long gun.
   
At least 17 states and numerous municipalities impose additional layers of permitting and licensing fees on residents before they can legally purchase a handgun.
   
Costs for a first-time applicant to receive a concealed weapons permit or license to carry, including background check, can vary from zero in Alaska, Arizona, Wyoming and Vermont -- where concealed carry is legal without a permit -- to $250 in Providence, R.I, to almost $450 in New York City and up to $480 in some California counties.
   
So, what does it cost to purchase and possess firearms in various jurisdictions across the nation?

PERMIT TO PURCHASE
Long guns: Five states and many municipalities require a permit or license to purchase any firearm, including long guns, ranging from $5 for a lifetime Firearms Identification card (FID) in New Jersey to a $100 FID in Massacuhsetts, good for six years. In Rhode Island, all prospective firearms buyers must first present proof they've completed and passed a safety exam to receive a free "blue card" allowing purchase. In Hawaii, to buy a firearm, purchasers must receive a 10-day permit to purchase a handgun and one-year permit to acquire a long gun.
   
In Illinois, residents need a state-issued $10 Firearm Owner's Identification (FOID) card to purchase or possess any firearm and ammunition. The FOID is valid for 10 years, but local municipalities in Illinois, such as Chicago, can impose further requirements at the point of purchase for long guns.
   
New York presents the most extreme examples of locally-imposed vagaries. There is no statewide permit required to buy a long gun but local municipalities, most notably New York City, can require licenses and permits to purchase and possess any type of firearm.
   
In Minnesota, buyers need a 30-day permit to purchase "military-style assault weapons" through a FFL dealer or a private transfer between individuals, but not for any other type of long gun.
   
Handguns: In addition to the five states -- New Jersey, Massachusetts, Hawaii, Rhode Island, Illinois -- and many municipalities that impose permitting or licensing requirements on residents before they can legally purchase any type of firearm, at least 12 other states and various local governments regulate handgun sales with precursory permitting and licensing stipulations beyond the standard NCIS-FBI background check.
   
In New Hampshire and New York, residents must already have a concealed carry permit to legally purchase a handgun. North Carolina, Minnesota, Connecticut, South Dakota, Iowa, and Maryland requires residents without concealed carry permits secure a permit and complete training courses before legally buying a handgun.
   
In California, all handgun purchases require a $25 Handgun Safety Certificate. In Michigan, a locally issued free, 30-day license is required to purchase handguns. In Nebraska, a $5 certificate is necesssary to legally purchase a handgun.
   
In South Dakota, residents without a concealed weapons permit must file an application to purchase a handgun and submit it for approval to local police.

REQUIRED REGISTRATION
Long guns: California and Hawaii require registration of all firearm sales. In Hawaii, all firearms must be registered with local law enforcement within five days of purchase or 72 hours of arrival on the islands, serviceable or not.
   
California law stipulates that long gun serial numbers are not recorded, only the sale. Legally defined assault weapons and .50 BMG rifles listed by make and model by the California Department of Justice must also be registered.
   
In Illinois and New York, weak state pre-emption laws allow municipalities to impose registration of all firearms, including long guns. Chicago, for instance, requires registration of all firearms for a one-time fee of $15 each. In New York City, all firearms must be registered with the NYPD.
   
Since enactment of the New York Safe Act, all grandfathered operable "assault" style rifles and shotguns purchased prior to Jan. 15, 2013, must be registered by Jan. 15, 2014.

Handguns: At least 14 states and dozens of municipalities mandate handgun registries beyond federal record-keeping requirements. State agencies in California, Connecticut, Maryland, New Jersey, Pennsylvania and Washington retain their own records of all handgun sales and transfers. In some states, such as Alabama and North Carolina, local law enforcement agencies document all handgun transfers.
   
Hawaii, Michigan, and New York are among states that require all handguns in private possessions be registered with local law enforcement. In several states, such as Illinois and New York, local municipalities can mandate their own handgun registries. Clark County, Nevada, (Las Vegas) requires all handguns be registered.

CONCEALED CARRY PERMITS (Permits to carry handguns)

Concealed carry permits and licenses to carry are, of course, far more difficult to get, and often more expensive to pay for, in the nation's 10 "may issue" states: Alabama, California, Connecticut, Delaware, Hawaii, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Jersey, New York, and Rhode Island.

Seven of these 10 "may issue" states have weak state pre-emption laws, which means local jurisdictions can fashion their own requirements for concealed handgun permits.
   
Hawaii, for instance, only charges $10 for a one-year license to carry, but few, if any, have been issued by any local law enforcement agency in the state in years.
   
There is a wide range in time spans and costs of concealed handgun permits issued by 48 states. Vermont doesn't issue permits because concealed carry is legal statewide while Illinois must begin to offer concealed carry permits by mid-June following the U.S. Seventh Circuit Court's December 2012 ruling that its concealed carry ban is unconstitutional.
   
Permit spans range from one year in Alabama ($10 to $30 depending on jurisdiction) to a six year-license in Massachusetts ($100), seven-year CWC in Florida ($112), 10-year license to carry in Oklahoma ($225) and a lifetime CWC in Indiana ($125, not including fingerprints, background check).
   
Costs can vary from nearly $1,000 in New York City to satisfy all mandated training and range proficiencies to anywhere from $200 to $480 for a two-year CWC in California, to $206.50 for a five-year permit in Connecticut, to $20 for a five-year permit in Pennsylvania, to $10 for a four-year permit in New Hampshire.
   
Twenty seven states offer five-year CWC permits -- 16 do so for under $100. Ten offer four-year permits, including seven under $100.   

HOW MUCH DOES IT COST TO OWN A FIREARM?
(Make sure to check local and state regulations as all laws are subject to change)

 -- ALABAMA --
Permit to purchase: Not required for any firearms.

Firearm registration:  Not required for any firearms. Licensed dealers must keep a record of every handgun sold, including the purchaser's signature and particular information about the firearm being sold. Private sales of handguns and long guns are legal and no background check is required; however, it is unlawful to sell a firearm to a prohibited person

License: Not required except to carry a handgun in public.

Handgun permit/license: Alabama's 67 county sheriffs "may issue" a concealed handgun license if applicant "has good reason to fear injury to his person or property" or can demonstrate "proper reason for carrying a handgun" and is deemed "a suitable person."

Fee:  Varies from $10 to $30, depending on county and sheriff; does not include cost of required training course.

Duration: One year.

Renewal: Varies from $10 to $30, depending on county and sheriff.

Open carry: Permitted if gun owners is licensed. Open carry in a vehicle without concealed carry license is prohibited.

State preemption:  Only the state legislature can impose gun laws and regulations.

"Assault weapon" laws: No.

Legislative outlook: Republican State Representative Mike Jones is sponsoring legislation calling for an amendment to the state constitution to guarantee the right to bear arms.   

-- ALASKA --
Permit to purchase:  Not required for any firearms.

Firearm registration: Not required for any firearms.

License:  Not required for any firearms.

Handgun permit/license: Not required. The Alaska State Police issues Alaska Concealed Handgun Permits, which makes the holder NICS exempt when buying firearms and is recognized in 36 states as a valid permit to carry. Otherwise, any Alaska resident can legally own a firearm and can carry it concealed without a permit/license.

Fee:  $91.50. Does not include required training course or fingerprinting, which can cost up to $35.

Duration: Five years.

Renewal:  $25

Open carry:  May carry openly without permit/license.   

State preemption: Only the state legislature can impose gun laws and regulations.

"Assault weapon" laws: No.

Legislative outlook: In the House, none of the 46 pre-filed bills as of Jan. 11 addressed gun control. In the Senate, none of the 10 pre-filed bills dealt with gun control.

--- ARIZONA --
Permit to purchase: Not required for any firearms.

Firearm registration: Not required for any firearms.

License: Not required for any firearms.

Handgun permit/license: Not required for anyone who can legally own/purchase a firearm. The Arizona Department of Public Safety still issues permit/licenses to carry for, among other reasons, recipricosity purposes with 36 other states.

Fee:  $60. Does not include required training course or fingerprinting.

Duration: Five years.

Renewal: $43.

Open carry: Yes. May carry openly without permit/license.

State preemption: Only the state legislature can impose gun laws and regulations.

"Assault weapon" laws: No.

Legislative outlook: Gov. Jan Brewer is expected to submit school-safety proposals, but any other form of gun-control legislation seems unlikely.

-- ARKANSAS --
Permit to Purchase: Not required for any firearms.

Firearm registration: Not required for any firearms.

License: Not required except to carry a handgun in public.

Handgun permit/license: The Arkansas State Police review Concealed Handgun Carry Licenses on a "shall issue" basis.

Fee:  $141.50 mailed-in application ($100 application fee; $25 state background check fee; $16.50 for FBI background check). Does not include required training course or fingerprinting. Fee is $150 for online applications.

Duration:  Five years.

Renewal: $60 mail-in; $63 online.

Open carry: Open handgun carry is not permitted.

State preemption: Only the state legislature can impose gun laws and regulations.   

"Assault weapon" laws: No.

Legislative outlook: No gun control laws proposed.

-- CALIFORNIA --

Permit to Purchase: Not required for long guns. All handgun purchases require a $25 Handgun Safety Certificate.     

Firearm registration: All firearm sales (except long guns more than 50 years old) must be completed through a dealer. All handgun serial numbers and sales are recorded by the state's Department of Justice’s Automated Firearms System. Long gun serial numbers are not recorded, only the sale. Legally defined assault weapons and .50 BMG rifles listed by make and model by the DOJ must be registered.

License: Not required except to carry a handgun in public.

Handgun permit/license: California's 58 county sheriffs or local police chiefs may issue a concealed handgun license if applicant "is of good moral character" and can demonstrate "good cause exists for issuance of the license." Highly variable by jurisdiction with some counties being defacto "no-issue" and others "shall-issue" in practice.

Fee: $167 to $187. Breakdown -- $80 to $100 application fee to local jurisdiction, $38 for state Firearm Eligibility application, $32 state Department of Justice fingerprint processing fee and $17 FBI fingerprint processing fee. Does not include required training courses or other requirements imposed by various jurisdictions (such as psychological testing), which the Calguns Foundation says could cost up to $300 more in some jurisdictions.

Duration: Two years.

Renewal:  $100 to $250, depending on where you are and who you talk to.

Open carry: Only permitted in unincorporated areas that have not banned the practice.

State preemption: Only the state legislature can impose gun laws and regulations.   

"Assault weapon" laws: .50 BMG rifles, unless such weapons were acquired by the owner prior to June 1, 1989, are banned. Legally defined assault weapons and .50 BMG rifles listed by make and model by the DOJ must be registered. Their sale and transfer is prohibited.

Legislative outlook: Bills seeking to update the definition of a banned assault weapon and to ban conversion kits that create high capacity ammunition clips have been introduced. Updates that seek to close loopholes and improve enforcement of current laws are under consideration.    

-- COLORADO --
Permit to Purchase: Not required for any firearms.     

Firearm registration: Not required for any firearms.   

License: Not required except to carry a handgun in public.

Handgun permit/license: Colorado's 63 county sheriffs review concealed carry permits on a "shall issue" basis.

Fee: $102.50 to $152.50. Breakdown: No more than $100 to local sheriff for processing and $52.50 to the Colorado Bureau of Investigation for the background and fingerprint check. Does not include required training courses.

Duration: Five years       

Renewal: $38 to $63. Breakdown: No more than $50 to local jurisdiction and $13 to the Colorado Bureau of Investigation.

Open carry: Legal statewide for legally licensed handgun owners except in the city and county of Denver.

State preemption: Only the state legislature can impose gun laws and regulations, although Denver city/county has a pre-existing "assault weapons" ban and prohibits open carry and open car carry of a loaded firearm.

"Assault weapon" laws: No, although Denver city/county has a pre-existing "assault weapons" ban.

Legislative outlook: Bills mandating universal background checks, banning magazines with more than 15 rounds, and allow college campuses to prohibit concealed carry have been introduced in the Colorado state legislature.

 -- CONNECTICUT --
Permit to Purchase: Not required for long guns. All handgun purchases require a $35 Certificate of Eligibility for Pistol or Revolver or a permit to carry.

Firearm registration: Not required for any firearms except those defined by the state as "assault weapons" purchased before Oct. 1, 1993. There is a defacto registry of handguns maintained by state Department of Public Safety for any handgun transfer, be it from a dealer or private party.

License: Not required except to carry a handgun in public.       

Handgun permit/license: Temporary permit review on a "may issue" basis by individual town's police department or First Selectman before receiving a state-issued permit.

Fee: $206.50. Breakdown: $70 for temporary local permit, $70 for state permit, $66.50 fingerprint fee.

Duration: Five years.

Renewal:  $70.

Open carry: May carry hand guns openly with permit/license.

State preemption: State pre-emption of local ordinances not explicitly specified in state law, but established by court precedence.   

"Assault weapon" laws: Selective fire assault weapons prohibited, unless purchased before Oct. 1, 1993.

Legislative outlook: Democratic Gov. Dannel Malloy has advisory committee looking at the state's gun laws. He favors a ban on large-capacity magazines. Rep. Bob Godfrey (D) and Sen. Beth Bye (D) are pushing legislation to further limit access to high-capacity guns, require a permit to buy ammunition and expand the definition of assault weapon.

-- DELAWARE --
Permit to Purchase: Not required for any firearms.         

Firearm registration: Not required for any firearms.       

License: Not required except to carry a handgun in public.
Handgun permit/license:    Delaware is a "may issue" state for concealed carry. Permits are generally issued to qualified applicants.

Fee:  $65. Does not include required training courses and fingerprinting fees, which can vary from jurisdiction to jurisdiction.

Duration: Three years. Subsequent renewals are for five years.

Renewal: $65

Open carry: Generally permitted for those with permits.

State preemption: Yes.   

"Assault weapon" laws: No.

Legislative outlook: Democratic Gov. Jack Markell proposes background checks for private gun sales as part of a new package of gun-control legislation, including proposals to end the "gun-show loophole," ban "assault-type" weapons and ammunition clips holding more than five rounds for rifles and 10 rounds for handguns. Sen. Robert Marshall (D) has also proposed a gun control package that would ban "military-style assault" weapons and high-capacity magazines, as well as a bill to establish gun buy-back programs for police.

-- FLORIDA --

Permit to Purchase: Not required for any firearms.         

Firearm registration: Not required for any firearms.       

License:   Not required except to carry a handgun in public.

Handgun permit/license:  Reviewed on a "shall-issue" basis by the state's Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services

Fee: $112. Breakdown: $70 application fee and $42 fingerprint processing fee. Does not include required training courses.

Duration: Seven years.

Renewal: $65.

Open carry:  No open carry of firearms allowed, even with license.

State preemption: Only the state legislature can impose gun laws and regulations.   

"Assault weapon" laws: No.   

Legislative outlook:  A bill in the House would allow local governments to ban possession of concealed weapons at specific events held at government buildings or public locations. Otherwise, no significant gun control bills introduced or anticipated.

-- GEORGIA --
Permit to purchase: Not required for any firearms.   

Firearm registration: Not required for any firearms.       

License: Not required except to carry a handgun in public.       

Handgun permit/license: Georgia's 159 county sheriffs review applications for a Georgia Weapons Permit on a "shall issue" basis.

Fee:  $75 to $90, depending on county. Typical $80. Breakdown: $30 for local county probate court, $40 for Georgia and FBI background check, and $10 for fingerprinting. Does not include required training course.

Duration: Five years.   

Renewal: $65 to $80, depending on county.

Open carry: Concealed or open carry allowed with permit.

State preemption: Several municipalities have local gun restrictions, although recent court rulings have forced these ordinances to be withdrawn.   

"Assault weapon" laws: No.   

Legislative outlook: Rep. Paul Battles (R) has introduced a bill allowing local boards of education authorize school administrators to carry firearms upon completion of a basic training course. Rep. Charles Gregory (R) introduced bills that would relax gun restrictions and let owners carry guns in churches and on college campuses.

-- HAWAII --

Permit to purchase: Permit to acquire required for all firearms. Permit costs $16.50 for a fingerprint check. Permit to acquire expires in 10 days for handguns, one year for long guns. There is a minimum 14-20 day waiting period for receiving a permit. A separate permit is required for each handgun transaction.

Firearm registration:  All firearms must be registered with local law enforcement within five days of purchase or 72 hours of import into the state, whether or not they are serviceable or not.

License: Not required except to carry a handgun in public.

Handgun permit/license: Hawaii is a "may issue" state for concealed carry but no handgun permits have been issued to resident in years. Applications are reviewed by local police chiefs. Appllicants must show "reason to fear injury to person or property." Permits are only good for the county issued in. Since each of Hawaii's eight islands is its own county, that means permits are only good for the island issued on.

Fee:  $10. Permits are rarely issued.           

Duration: One year.

Renewal: $10. Permits are rarely issued.

Open carry:  Open carry is technically permitted with a concealed carry license.

State preemption: Only the state legislature can impose gun laws and regulations.       

"Assault weapon" laws: Yes. Bans most "assault weapons" and large capacity ammunition magazines;

Legislative outlook: Senate Bill 69 would require fingerprinting and NICS checks in addition to the already existing registration requirement on all firearms brought into the state, and will allocate an unspecified amount of money to each county to process these mandated background checks. Individuals who bring firearms into Hawaii from another state, even on a temporary basis, are already required to register their firearms within 72 hours. This bill now adds a fingerprinting, photographing, and a background check requirement on the owner in addition to the already burdensome registration requirement on such legally possessed firearms.

-- IDAHO --

Permit to purchase:  Not required for any firearms.       

Firearm registration:  Not required for any firearms.   

License: Not required except to carry a concealed handgun in public.

Handgun permit/license: Idaho's 44 county sheriffs review applications for a concealed carry permit on a "shall issue" basis.

Fee: $60, can vary slightly by county. Does not include required training courses.           

Duration: Five years.

Renewal:  $45, can vary by county.

Open carry:  May carry openly without permit/license.

State preemption: Only the state legislature can impose gun laws and regulations.   

"Assault weapon" laws: No.

Legislative outlook: Gun control is not on the legislative agenda, but lawmakers are expected to increase funding for mental health care.

-- ILLINOIS --
Permit to purchase:  Yes. Need a state-issed $10 Firearm Owner's Identification (FOID) card to purchase or possess any firearm and ammunition. FOID is valid for 10 years.   

Firearm registration: Yes, in some municipalities. Not required by the state for any firearms but local jurisdictions can require firearms registration. The city of Chicago, for instance, requires registration of all firearms for a one-time fee of $15 each.

License:  State-issued FOID required to possess any firearm. Local municipalities can require gunowners be licensed to possess any firearm.   

Handgun permit/license: Illinois is the only state that does not issue any type of concealed carry. The state must offer concealed carry permits by mid-June following the December 2012 ruling by the U.S. Seventh Circuit Court that Illinois' ban on concealed carry is unconstitutional. In February, the state's request for an appeal was rejected. Illinois is considering a U.S. Supreme Court appeal.

Fee: Unknown.                               

Duration: Unknown.

Renewal: Unknown.

Open carry: Prohibited.

State preemption: llinois does not have state preemption of firearm laws meaning local governments can pass their own restrictive laws. For instance, the city of Chicago requires gunowners not only have a FOID, but a $100 Chicago Firearms Permit (CFP) and register all firearms at $15 each. Before issuing the CFP, gunowners must pass a background check including fingerprinting and take extensive training courses at firing ranges -- which is difficult to do in a city that won't permit firing ranges. According to IllinoisCarry.com, the initial cost to legally own a firearm -- any firearm -- in Chicago ranges from $400 to $900.

"Assault weapon" laws: No statewide ban, yet. Cook County and the city of Chicago separately ban "assault weapons" and of magazines that can hold more than 10 or 12 rounds of ammunition respectively.

Legislative outlook: The Illinois House on March 5 voted in favor of amendments that would ban semi-automatic assault weapons and large-capacity ammunition magazines, though the proposals still face several legislative battles before they could become law.

-- INDIANA --
Permit to purchase:   Not required for any firearms.       

Firearm registration: Not required for any firearms.   

License: Not required except to carry a concealed handgun in public.

Handgun permit/license: Indiana's 92 county sheriffs review concealed carry permits for personal protection on a "shall issue" basis.

Fee: $40. Does not include fingerprinting, FBI check, and cost of required training courses. State also offers a lifetime concealed carry permit for personal protection for $125.           

Duration:  Four years or lifetime.

Renewal: $40.

Open carry: May carry openly with a carry permit.

State preemption: Only the state legislature can impose gun laws and regulations since 2011.   

"Assault weapon" laws: No.   

Legislative outlook: Indiana lawmakers have proposed no new laws aimed at limiting or controlling access to guns but there are proposals for providing funding for armed police officers in schools and allowing properly permitted college students to carry guns on campus for personal protection.

-- IOWA --
Permit to purchase: Not required for long guns. A locally issued $5 to $11 one-year permit to acquire or concealed carry permit required to purchase handguns.       

Firearm registration:  Not required for any firearms.   

License:   Not required except to carry a concealed handgun in public.

Handgun permit/license: Since 2011, Iowa's 92 county sheriffs review concealed carry permits on a "shall issue" basis.

Fee: $50 to $60, depending on county. Includes fee not to exceed $10 for local authority to issue plastic concealed carry ID card. Does not include cost of fingerprinting and required training courses.

Duration:  Five years.

Renewal: $25 to $35, depending on county.

Open carry: May carry handguns openly with permit to carry.

State preemption: Only the state legislature can impose gun laws and regulations.   

"Assault weapon" laws:  No.   

Legislative outlook:  Republicans support strengthening gun ownership rights and are looking to increase funding for more frequent mental health crisis training of law enforcement and health officials.

-- KANSAS --
Permit to purchase: Not required for any firearms.   

Firearm registration: Not required for any firearms.

License:  Not required except to carry a concealed handgun in public.

Handgun permit/license: Kansas' 105 county sheriffs review concealed carry permits on a "shall issue" basis.

Fee: $132.50. Breakdown: $100 to state and $32.50 to county sheriff. Does not include required training courses.           

Duration: Five years.

Renewal:  $25.

Open carry: May carry openly without permit/license.

State preemption: Only the state legislature can impose gun laws and regulations.   

"Assault weapon" laws:  No.

Legislative outlook: Republican Gov. Sam Brownback proposes to spend $10 million on services for the most at-risk and challenging mental health cases and will name a task force to re-evaluate the system. Sen.-elect Forrest Knox (R) has reintroduced a bill to ease the ban on carrying concealed weapons in state and municipal buildings.

-- KENTUCKY --
Permit to purchase: Not required for any firearms.       

Firearm registration:  Not required for any firearms.   

License: Not required except to carry a concealed handgun in public.

Handgun permit/license: Kentucky's 120 county sheriffs review concealed carry permits on a "shall issue" basis.

Fee: $60. Breakdown: $40 to the Kentucky State Police and $20 to local sheriff's department. Does not include mandated training courses, which state law limits to no more than $75 for instruction and $10 materials and range rental.       

Duration: Five years.

Renewal:  $60.

Open carry: May carry openly without permit/license.

State preemption: Only the state legislature can impose gun laws and regulations. An exception allows colleges and government entities to restrict concealed carry on their premises.

"Assault weapon" laws: No.   

Legislative outlook: Only three gun-related bills were pre-filed for the 2013 General Assembly session, including one to establish the Kentucky long rifle as the official state gun.

-- LOUISIANA --
Permit to purchase: Not required for any firearms.   

Firearm registration: Not required for any firearms.

License: Not required except to carry a concealed handgun in public.       

Handgun permit/license: The Louisiana Department of Public Safety & Corrections reviews concealed carry permits on a "shall issue" basis. The chief law enforcement officer of a parish can issue a concealed handgun permit to an individual valid only within the boundaries of the parish.

Fee: $125 for applicants aged 21-64. $62.50 for applicants 65 and older. An additional $50 fee is assessed residents who have not lived in Louisiana for the previous 15 years. Does not include the cost of fingerprint cards and required training courses.               

Duration: Five years.       

Renewal: $125/$62.50.       

Open carry: Generally permitted, but may be restricted by local governments with laws in place before 1985.

State preemption:  Only the state legislature can impose gun laws and regulations. Local restrictions in place before 1985 are grandfathered in.    

"Assault weapon" laws: No.   

Legislative outlook: Republican Gov. Bobby Jindal said he will introduce legislation that would authorize Louisiana to report mental health eligibility to the NICS database.

-- MAINE --
Permit to purchase: Not required for any firearms.   

Firearm registration: Not required for any firearms.   

License: Not required except to carry a concealed handgun in public.

Handgun permit/license: Individual town police or city clerks review concealed carry permits on a "shall issue" basis.

Fee: $35. Does not include the cost of required training courses.                   

Duration: Four years.

Renewal: $20.

Open carry: Open carry is generally permitted. Open carry in a vehicle is permitted only with a concealed carry license.

State preemption:  Only the state legislature can impose gun laws and regulations. Local governments may restrict the discharge of firearms.

"Assault weapon" laws:  No.

Legislative outlook:  A bill has been filed to strengthen "the integrity of non-resident concealed handgun permits."

-- MARYLAND --
Permit to purchase: Not required for long guns. Buyers of handguns must complete a training course or hold a concealed carry permit. All handgun purchases must be approved by the state police. 

Firearm registration: Not required for long guns. The Maryland State Police maintain a permanent record of all handgun transfers.

License: Not required except to carry a concealed handgun in public.

Handgun permit/license:  The Maryland State Police reviews concealed carry permit applications on a "may issue" basis. Applicants must demonstrate a "good and substantial reason" to carry a handgun. Permits are difficult to receive.

Fee: $109.50. Breakdown: $75 application fee, $18 to the Maryland Criminal Justice Information System, $16.50 for FBI fingerprint check.               

Duration: Three years.

Renewal: $84.50.

Open carry:  Technically permitted with a concealed carry license, but not encouraged.

State preemption: Only the state legislature can impose gun laws and regulations in most instances.   

"Assault weapon" laws: Maryland is one of seven states with an "assault weapons" ban. The state considers .50 BMG caliber rifles and certain other models as "regulated firearms," and magazines that can hold more than 20 rounds of ammunition are illegal to sell and manufacture. There is also a ban on "assault pistols."

Legislative outlook: On Feb. 28, the Maryland Senate passed what could be one of the nation's strictest gun control laws, banning magazines holding more than 10 rounds of ammunition, a range of guns classified as "assault weapons," and gun sales to anyone who has spent a month or more in a state mental hospital. If the Maryland House and Governor's office, both controlled by Democrats, sign off on the bill, Maryland will join California, Hawaii, Massachusetts, and New York in outlawing magazines holding more than 10 rounds.

-- MASSACHUSETTS --
Permit to purchase: A $100 Firearms Identification (FID) is required to purchase, possess and carry any type of firearm and ammunition. FIDs are valid for six years. Those with licenses to carry handguns do not need a FID.       

Firearm registration: Not required for any firearms.   

License: FID required to possess and carry any type of firearm, ammunition. A license to carry is required to carry a concealed handgun in public.

Handgun permit/license: Local police review resident Class A License To Carry permit applications on a "may issue" basis. Odds of being approved for LTC varies widely from town to town.

Fee:  $100. Does not include required training courses and other requirements that can be imposed by local jurisdictions.                       

Duration: Six years.

Renewal: $100.

Open carry: Permitted in some areas with a concealed carry license. Open carry in a vehicle is not permitted.

State preemption:  Local governments have the power to impose their own regulations and restrictions on firearms and gunowners.   

"Assault weapon" laws: "Assault weapons" and magazines that can hold more than 10 rounds of ammunition banned unless legally owned before September 1994.

Legislative outlook: Democratic Gov. Deval Patrick has proposed legislation since 2010 that would prohibit gun owners from buying more than one firearm every 30 days. Legislators are considering several gun-control measures, including tougher regulations on storing guns and a bid for better screening processes to keep guns out of the hands of those with mental illnesses. Also, a group of experts will advise legislators on public safety, mental health, law and other areas.

-- MICHIGAN --
Permit to purchase: Not required for long guns. A locally issued free license good for 30 days is required to purchase handguns.   

Firearm registration:  Not required for long guns. All handguns must be registered with local city chief of police or county sheriff.

License: Not required except to carry a concealed handgun in public.

Handgun permit/license: County clerks and sheriffs in 85 Michigan counties review concealed carry permits on a "shall issue" basis.

Fee:  $105. Breakdown: $46 to county, $59 to state. Fingerprinting and background check included, but if applicant chooses to be fingerprinted at local police agency rather than county sheriff, local police may charge up to $15. Does not include cost of required training courses.               

Duration: Five years.           

Renewal: $105.       

Open carry: Open carry is generally permitted. Open carry in a vehicle is permitted only with a concealed carry license.

State preemption: Only the state legislature can impose gun laws and regulations. Local governments may restrict the discharge of firearms.   

"Assault weapon" laws: No.

Legislative outlook: Republican Gov. Rick Synder vetoed legislation in December that would have allowed permit holders to carry concealed weapons in schools and other gun-free zones because it did not have a local opt-out provision.

-- MINNESOTA --
Permit to purchase: Not required for long guns. A free permit to purchase, or a concealed weapons permit, is required to buy handguns and "military-style assault weapons" through a FFL dealer or a private transfer between individuals. Permit is valid for 30 days.   

Firearm registration:  Not required for any firearms.   

License:  Not required except to carry a concealed handgun in public.

Handgun permit/license: Minnesota's 87 county sheriffs review concealed carry permits on a "shall issue" basis.   

Fee: $100, varies by county. Does not include required training courses.           

Duration: Five years.

Renewal: $75, varies by county. Additional training required.

Open carry:  May carry openly with permit to carry.

State preemption: Only the state legislature can impose gun laws and regulations. Local governments may restrict the discharge of firearms.   

"Assault weapon" laws: No.   

Legislative outlook: A bipartisan group of lawmakers on March 6 announced a bill that toughens penalties for criminals who carry guns but does not mandate universal background checks for most gun purchases.

-- MISSISSIPPI --
Permit to purchase: Not required for any firearms.       

Firearm registration: Not required for any firearms.   

License: Not required except to carry a concealed handgun in public.

Handgun permit/license: Mississippi's Department of Public Safety reviews concealed carry permit applications on a "shall issue" basis.

Fee: $132.50. Breakdown: $100 to state, $32.50 to cover cost of processing fingerprints. Does not include cost of required training courses.   

Duration:  Five years.

Renewal: $82.50.

Open carry: A license to carry a concealed pistol or revolver is required for open carry.

State preemption: Only the state legislature can impose gun laws and regulations. Local governments may restrict the discharge of firearms, the carrying of firearms at a public park or public meeting, and the use of firearms during a declared emergency.   

"Assault weapon" laws: No.   

Legislative outlook: No gun control legislation on agenda with Republicans controlling both chambers.

-- MISSOURI --
Permit to purchase: Not required for any firearms.       

Firearm registration: Not required for any firearms.   

License: Not required except to carry a concealed handgun in public.

Handgun permit/license: Missouri's 114 county sheriffs review concealed carry permits on a "shall issue" basis.

Fee: $138, varies by county. Breakdown: $100 to state, $38 for fingerprints. Does not include cost of required training courses.                   

Duration: Three years.   

Renewal: $50, varies by county. Does not include cost of fingerprinting.

Open carry: Only with license to carry.

State preemption: Only the state legislature can impose gun laws and regulations. Local governments may restrict the discharge of firearms and the carrying of firearms at a public park or public meeting.   

"Assault weapon" laws: No.   

Legislative outlook: Rep. Mike Kelley (R) has filed a bill that would allow any teacher or school administrator to bring concealed weapons to school. Currently, the school board must approve a person carrying a weapon on school property.

-- MONTANA --
Permit to purchase:  Not required for any firearms.       

Firearm registration: Not required for any firearms.   

License: Not required for any firearms, except to carry a concealed handgun in public within the incorporated limits of some towns and cities. A permit is necessary only when the weapon is "wholly or partially covered by clothing or apparel." It is legal to carry and/or keep a firearm inside a vehicle and to carry a firearm in a backpack, purse or briefcase without a permit.

Handgun permit/license: Montana's 56 county sheriffs review concealed carry permits on a "shall issue" basis.   

Fee: $60, can vary by county. Does not include cost of required training courses.                   
Duration: Four years.

Renewal: $25.

Open carry: Generally permitted without any type of permit/license outside the official boundaries of a city or town or the confines of a logging, lumbering, mining, or railroad camp.

State preemption: Only the state legislature can impose gun laws and regulations. Local governments may restrict the discharge of firearms, the carrying of firearms at a public park or public meeting and impose further restrictions than the state in restricting possession of firearms by felons, minors, illegal aliens, and the mentally incompetent.

"Assault weapon" laws:     No.   

Legislative outlook: Republicans support a bill that prohibits state enforcement of any federal bans on semiautomatic firearms and magazines. Another bill seeks to prevent local governments from restricting firearms.

-- NEBRASKA --
Permit to purchase: Not required for long guns. A $5 certificate is required to purchase handguns.

Firearm registration:  Not required for any firearms.

License: Not required except to carry a concealed handgun in public.   

Handgun permit/license: The Nebraska State Patrol reviews Concealed Handgun Permit applications on a "shall issue" basis.

Fee: $100. Does not include cost of required training courses.       

Duration: Five years.

Renewal:  $50.

Open carry:  Generally permitted, but may be restricted by local governments.

State preemption: Only the state legislature can impose gun laws and regulations. Local governments may restrict the discharge of firearms and the carrying of firearms at a public park or public meetingt.   

"Assault weapon" laws: No.   

Legislative outlook:  LB 958, introduced by State Senator Brad Ashford, would require gunowners to report to police the loss or theft of a firearm within 48 hours of the discovery of the loss or face criminal prosecution.  This bill would also mandate that every firearm sold to be accompanied with a gun lock or trigger lock and require retailers to post a sign and provide written notice to buyers that all firearms should be stored locked.  LB958 would also create a “Gun Violence Commission,” to investigate “gun violence and gun-related deaths in Nebraska” as well as any “factors that contribute to gun violence.”

-- NEVADA --
Permit to purchase: Not required for any firearms.   

Firearm registration: Not required for long guns. Clark County requires all handguns be registered.

License: Not required except to carry a concealed handgun in public.

Handgun permit/license: Nevada's 17 county sheriffs review concealed carry permits on a "shall issue" basis.   

Fee: $97.50. Does not include cost of required training courses           

Duration: Five years.

Renewal: $65.50

Open carry: Open carry generally permitted. For open carry in a vehicle, the firearm must be clearly visible if upon the person.

State preemption: Only the state legislature can impose gun laws and regulations. Local governments may restrict the discharge of firearms and the carrying of firearms at a public park or public meeting. Handgun registration in Clark County is grandfathered in.   

"Assault weapon" laws: No.

Legislative outlook: Under SB 76, introduced by state Senator James Settelmeyer (R), a CCW applicant would only have to qualify with one handgun. Current law requires that CCW applicants qualify with both a semi-automatic pistol and a revolver, should they wish to carry both kinds of handguns.

-- NEW HAMPSHIRE --
Permit to purchase: Not required for long guns. A concealed carry permit is required to purchase a handgun, or the buyer must be "personally known" to the seller when purchasing a firearm from a non-licensed dealer.   

Firearm registration: Not required for any firearms.   

License: Not required except to carry a concealed handgun in public.   

Handgun permit/license: Local police or New Hampshire's 10 county sheriffs review concealed carry permits on a "shall issue" basis.

Fee:  $10. Does not include costs of required training courses.           

Duration: Four years.

Renewal: $10.

Open carry: No license is required to openly carry a firearm while on foot, but carry of a loaded pistol or revolver in a motor vehicle, openly or concealed, does require a license.

State preemption: Only the state legislature can impose gun laws and regulations.   
"Assault weapon" laws: No.

Legislative outlook: Nine gun-related bills have been filed. Six would reduce requirements or clarify existing statutes and three bills would change requirements for firearms. Some legislators want to repeal the  "stand-your-ground" provision made to the state's Castle Doctrine last year.

-- NEW JERSEY --

Permit to purchase: A lifetime $5 Firearms Identification card (FID) card is required for any firearm purchase. An additional $2 permit is required for each handgun purchase. Only one handgun can be purchased within a 30-day period.

Firearm registration: The N.J. State Police maintain a record of all handgun transfers.

License:  Not required except to carry a concealed handgun in public.

Handgun permit/license: Local police or the state police review concealed carry permit applications on a "may issue" basis, requiring applicants to show "good cause."

Fee: $20. Can vary by jurisdiction. Does not include costs of required training courses.           
Duration: Two years.

Renewal: $20.

Open carry: Only with a concealed carry permit. Generally not encourged.

State preemption: New Jersey explicitly authorizes municipalities to "regulate and prohibit the sale and use of guns, pistols, firearms, and fireworks of all descriptions." Municipalities may also enact ordinances, regulations, rules and by-laws that are consistent with state and federal law for the "preservation of the public health, safety and welfare of the municipality and its inhabitants." Municipalities are described under state law as broad repositories "of local police power in terms of the right and power to legislate for the general health, safety and welfare of their residents."

"Assault weapon" laws: Yes. Possession of "assault firearms" and of magazines that can hold more than 15 rounds of ammunition are prohibited. Firearms and magazines acquired before May 1, 1990 and registered with the state are grandfathered in.

Legislative outlook:  The New Jersey Assembly has approved a 22-bill package of gun-control measures this session. The measures reduce the maximum capacity of gun magazines, ban online sales of weapons and ammo, and allow police to seize weapons from people when mental health professionals determine they pose a threat. They also allow towns to establish weapons-free zones around schools.   

-- NEW MEXICO --
Permit to purchase: Not required for any firearms.   

Firearm registration:  Not required for any firearms.   

License:  Not required except to carry a concealed handgun in public.

Handgun permit/license: State police or New Mexico's 33 county sheriffs review concealed carry permit applications on a "shall issue" basis.

Fee: $100. Does not include costs of state-approved training course that includes at least 15 hours of classroom and firing range time.

Duration: Four years. Must pass a shooting proficiency test for category and caliber of handgun on permit every two years.

Renewal: $75.

Open carry: Yes.

State preemption: Only the state legislature can impose gun laws and regulations.

Assault weapons ban: No.

Legislative outlook: In January, State Representative Miguel P. Garcia, (D- Albuquerque), proposed legislation requiring background checks for purchases of firearms made at gun shows and through private sales, both currently unregulated in New Mexico.

-- NEW YORK --
Permit to purchase:  No permit is required to buy a rifle or shotgun (except in New York City). A license to carry or possess a pistol or revolver is required to purchase a handgun.

Firearm registration: Not required for long guns (except New York City). All handguns must be registered for $3 each. Handguns are registered with purchase permit. The serial number and sale is noted down. It is illegal to possess any un-registered firearm. Since enactment of the New York Safe Act, all grandfathered operable "assault" style rifles and shotguns purchased prior to Jan. 15, 2013, must now be registered by Jan. 15, 2014.

License: Not required other than to carry a concealed handgun in public, except in New York City.

Handgun permit/license: In 59 of 62 counties, concealed weapons permits applications for personal protection are reviewed on a "may issue" basis with a Superior Court judge serving as the licensing officer. New York City, Nassau and Suffolk counties have licensing officers that are either police commissioners or a sheriff.  Applicants must show "proper cause," that they are "exposed to extraordinary personal danger" to receive a concealed carry permit. Odds of receiving a permit vary greatly by county, with metropolitan downstate counties far more restrictive than those upstate.

Fee:  Varies widely, from $10 in Suffolk County to $340 in New York City (not including $91.50 for fingerprints and background check).             

Duration: Varies by jurisdiction, from five years in Suffolk County to two years in New York City.

Renewal: Varies by jurisdiction.

Open carry: Illegal under state law although some counties will issue permits to open carry, not concealed carry.

State preemption:  Municipalities, such as New York City, can impose more restrictive gun laws than the state.

Assault weapons ban: Possession of "assault weapons" is prohibited, except for those legally possessed on Jan. 15, 2013 and registered with the state by Jan. 15, 2014. Possession of magazines that hold more than 10 rounds is prohibited, but a maximum of only seven rounds may legally be loaded in a magazine; .22 caliber tubular magazines are exempt from the limit. New York City, Buffalo, Albany, and Rochester have their own assault weapon bans.   

Legislative outlook: The New York State Legislature approved the nation's first gun-control measure following the Newtown shooting by adopting Gov. Andrew Cuomo's bill further restricting the state's ban on "assault weapons," limiting the size of magazines to seven bullets, and enacting more stringent background checks for sales.

-- NORTH CAROLINA --
Permit to purchase: Not required for long guns. A $5 permit to purchase or a concealed carry permit is required to buy handguns.

Firearm registration:  Not required for long guns. The county sheriff must keep a record of handgun purchase permits.

License: Not required other than to carry a concealed handgun in public.

Handgun permit/license: North Carolina's 100 county sheriffs review concealed carry permit applications on a "shall issue" basis.

Fee: $90. Breakdown: $80 application fee to state, $10 to local law enforcement for fingerprints. Does not include required training courses. Some counties assess an additional $20 to conduct a "health care facility search."

Duration: Five years.

Renewal:  $75.

Open carry:  Generally permitted, but may be limited by local governments.

State preemption:  Only the state legislature can impose gun laws and regulations. Local governments may restrict the discharge of firearms and the carrying of firearms at a public park or public meeting.

Assault weapons ban: No.   

Legislative outlook: In late February, a North Carolina House committee advanced a resolution asking Congress to block what is says are gun proposals not backed by "scientific evidence." The measure is strictly a resolution expressing state opposition to Obama's proposals.

-- NORTH DAKOTA --
Permit to purchase: Not required for any firearms

Firearm registration: Not required for any firearms.

License: Not required other than to carry a concealed handgun in public.

Handgun permit/license: The North Dakota Bureau of Criminal Investigation reviews concealed carry permit applications on a "shall issue" basis.

Fee:   $45. Does not include required training courses, fingerprinting.

Duration: Three years.

Renewal:  $45.

Open carry: Open carry of long guns is generally permitted. Open carry of handguns is permitted only with a concealed carry permit.

State preemption: Only the state legislature can impose gun laws and regulations.

Assault weapons ban: No.   

Legislative outlook: Rep. Roscoe Streyle has introduced HB1183 which would prohibit the use of state resources to enforce any new federal gun control laws.

-- OHIO --
Permit to purchase: Not required for any firearms

Firearm registration: Not required for any firearms.

License: Not required other than to carry a concealed handgun in public.

Handgun permit/license: Ohio's 88 county sheriffs review concealed carry permit applications on a "shall issue" basis.

Fee:  $67. Does not include required training courses.

Duration: Five years.

Renewal: $50.

Open carry: Traditional open carry state. Restrictions in motor vehicle.

State preemption: Only the state legislature can impose gun laws and regulations following ruling in City of Cleveland vs. State of Ohio.

Assault weapons ban: Magazines holding over 31 rounds makes the weapon a banned "automatic firearm."   

Legislative outlook: Gov. Johns Kasich in December signed into law a measure that would require Ohio residents demonstrate competency with the weapon only once rather than each time the concealed carry permit expires.The bill also would allow carrying concealed weapons in the parking garage of the State Capitol.

-- OKLAHOMA --
Permit to purchase:  Not required for any firearms.

Firearm registration: Not required for any firearms.

License: Not required other than to carry a concealed handgun in public.

Handgun permit/license: Oklahoma's 77 county sheriffs review concealed carry permit applications on a "shall issue" basis.

Fee:  $100 for five years; $200 for 10 years. In addition, $25 for fingerprinting, background check to local law enforcement agent. Does not include cost of required training courses.

Duration: Five or 10 years.

Renewal:  $85 for five years; $170 for 10 years.

Open carry: Concealed carry of loaded handguns permitted; open carry became lawful with permit as of Nov. 1, 2012. Unlicensed public carry of unloaded handguns and long arms by persons eligible to possess firearms is allowed under some circumstances.

State preemption: Only the state legislature can impose gun laws and regulations.

Assault weapons ban: No.

Legislative outlook: The ‘Oklahoma 2nd Amendment Preservation Act’ threatens to incarcerate, for five years, any federal governmental official, who tries to enforce new federal gun control provisions in Oklahoma.

-- OREGON --
Permit to purchase: Not required for any firearms

Firearm registration: Not required for any firearms.

License: Not required other than to carry a concealed handgun in public.

Handgun permit/license: Oregon's 36 county sheriffs review concealed carry permit applications on a "shall issue" basis.

Fee: $65. Breakdown: $50 to local law enforcement for fingerprinting, $15 to the Oregon State Police. Does not included costs of required training courses.

Duration:  Four years.

Renewal: $50.

Open carry: Open carry is generally allowed. Localities may prohibit open carry by persons without a concealed carry license.

State preemption: Only the state legislature can impose gun laws and regulations. Local governments may restrict the carrying of firearms at a public park or public meeting.

Assault weapons ban: No.

Legislative outlook: Proposed House Bill 3200 makes the “crime of unlawful possession or transfer of assault weapon or large capacity magazine” punishable “by maximum penalty of 10 years’ imprisonment, $250,000 fine, or both.”

-- PENNSYLVANIA --
Permit to purchase: Not required for any firearms. Private sales of handguns must go through a licensed dealer, though long guns may be sold privately without the use of a licensed dealer.

Firearm registration: Not required for any firearms. The Pennsylvania State Police keep a "sales database" of all handguns purchased within the state.

License: Not required other than to carry a concealed handgun in public.

Handgun permit/license:Pennsylvania's 67 county sheriffs review concealed carry permit applications on a "shall issue" basis.

Fee: $20.

Duration: Five years.

Renewal: $20.       

Open carry:  Unlicensed carry permitted everywhere but Philadelphia and in vehicles.

State preemption: Only the state legislature can impose gun laws and regulations.

Assault weapons ban: No.

Legislative outlook: Pennsylvania lawmakers closed the "Florida loophole" in February, which allowed residents to get concealed-carry permits online from Florida, sometimes after their applications were rejected at home. Both states deny carry permits to convicted felons. However, Pennsylvania also has a morals clause that lets police reject suspects under criminal investigation or people with long arrest records. Rather than appeal, an increasing number in recent years turned to "the Florida loophole."  

-- RHODE ISLAND --
Permit to purchase: All purchasers of firearms must complete and pass a safety exam, at which time they will receive a "blue card" allowing purchase.

Firearm registration: Not required for any firearms.

License: Not required other than to carry a concealed handgun in public.

Handgun permit/license: Local police and Rhode Island's five county sheriffs review concealed weapons permits applications on a "may issue" basis.

Fee:  $40, can vary by location. Up to $250 within city of Providence. Does not include cost of required training courses.

Duration: Four years.

Renewal: $40, varies by location.

Open carry: No.

State preemption: Only the state legislature can impose gun laws and regulations although different jurisdictions can charge different amounts for permits.

Assault weapons ban: No.

Legislative outlook: House Bill 5208 would strike the words “and use” from state law, making it easier to prosecute youth who are in possession of firearms.  Under current Rhode Island law, it is already illegal or minors to “possess and use” firearms.

-- SOUTH CAROLINA --

Permit to purchase: Not required for any firearms.

Firearm registration: Not required for any firearms.

License: Not required other than to carry a concealed handgun in public.

Handgun permit/license: The South Carolina Law Enforcement Division reviews concealed weapons permits applications on a "shall issue" basis.    

Fee: $50. Does not include cost of required training courses.

Duration: Four years.

Renewal: $50.

Open carry: No.

State preemption: Only the state legislature can impose gun laws and regulations.

Assault weapons ban:  No.

Legislative outlook: Sen. Lee Bright has refiled the The Firearms Freedom Act, which would allow S.C. residents to buy firearms, ammunition and gun accessories made in the state, even if they violate federal gun-control laws. He introduced the bill last year, but it died in committee.

-- SOUTH DAKOTA --
Permit to purchase: Not required for long guns. When buying a handgun from a Federal Firearms License holder, an application to purchase a handgun must be filled out by the buyer and submitted to the local police by the seller.

Firearm registration: Not required for any firearms.

License: Not required other than to carry a concealed handgun in public.

Handgun permit/license: South Dakota's' 66 county sheriffs review Class I and Class II concealed carry permit applications on a "shall issue" basis.

Fee: $10.

Breakdown: $7 to the South Dakota Secretary of State and $3 to the local municipality processing the permit.

Duration: Five years.   

Renewal: $10.

Open carry: Open carry is legal in South Dakota and does not require a concealed pistol permit. Firearms may be transported in vehicles if they are clearly visible.   

State preemption: Only the state legislature can impose gun laws and regulations.

Assault weapons ban: No.

Legislative outlook: South Dakota Republican Gov. Dennis Daugaard on March 8 signed into law a bill to allow teachers to carry guns in the classroom.

-- TENNESSEE --
Permit to purchase: Not required for any firearms.

Firearm registration: Not required for any firearms.

License: Not required other than to carry a concealed handgun in public.

Handgun permit/license: The Tennessee Highway Patrol reviews concealed carry permit applications on a "shall issue" basis.

Fee:  $115. Does not include cost of required handgun training course.

Duration: Four years.

Renewal: $50.

Open carry: Concealed or open carry of a handgun is allowed with permit.       

State preemption: Local ordinances in effect before April 8, 1986 can pre-empt state law. Local governments may post signs to prohibit carry on government property, just like private property owners.

Assault weapons ban: No.

Legislative outlook: State Rep. Joe Carr (R-Murfreesboro) has proposed legislation to ban the enforcement of any new federal gun bans.

-- TEXAS --
Permit to purchase: Not required for any firearms.

Firearm registration: Not required for any firearms.

License: Not required other than to carry a concealed handgun in public.

Handgun permit/license: The Texas Department of Public Safety reviews concealed carry permit applications on a "shall issue" basis.

Fee: $140. Does not include cost of required handgun training course, generally between $100 and $125, for first-time permit applicants.

Duration: Four years.

Renewal: $70.

Open carry: Open carry of a handgun is prohibited with some exceptions. Open carry of a long gun is not specifically prohibited but may be construed as "Disorderly Conduct."       

State preemption: A municipality may not adopt regulations relating to the transfer, private ownership, keeping, transportation, licensing, or registration of firearms, ammunition, or firearm supplies. Municipal governments can enact regulations on the discharge of firearms (such as noise, nuisance or public safety ordinances); however, those laws are subject to and cannot preempt State law concerning justified use of a firearm.

Assault weapons ban: No.

Legislative outlook: Under a proposed bill, local police officers could be convicted of a crime for enforcing any new federal gun control laws.

-- UTAH --
Permit to purchase: Not required for any firearms.

Firearm registration: Not required for any firearms.

License:  Not required other than to carry a concealed handgun in public.

Handgun permit/license: The Utah Bureau of Criminal Identification reviews concealed weapons permits applications on a "shall issue" basis.

Fee:  $76. Breakdown: $46 for application fee, up to $30 for photos, fingerprinting by local law enforcement agencies. Does not include cost of required Weapon Familiarity Certification.

Duration: Five years.

Renewal: $46, plus administrative costs assessed by local law enforcement agency.

Open carry: Utah allows for open carry of unloaded firearms without a concealed firearm permit. Utah requires a permit to carry a concealed firearm   

State preemption: Only the state legislature can impose gun laws and regulations. Local governments may restrict the discharge of firearms.

Assault weapons ban:  No.

Legislative outlook: Rep. Brian Greene (R-Pleasant Grove) is proposing legislation that asserts state – rather than federal – power over gun control. Greene's bill would allow local police the authority to arrest federal agents should they try to seize any firearms.

-- VERMONT --
Permit to purchase: Not required for any firearms.

Firearm registration: Not required for any firearms.

License:  Not required for any firearms.

Handgun permit/license: Vermont does not issue Permit/Licenses to Carry a Concealed firearm.

Fee: $0

Duration: None.

Renewal:$0

Open carry: Vermont allows anyone who can legally own a firearm to carry it concealed without a permit of any kind.   

State preemption: State law preempts local governments from regulating the possession, ownership, transfer, carrying, registration or licensing of firearms.

Assault weapons ban: No.

Legislative outlook: A bill to ban assault weapons in Vermont was shelved in January. It would have banned "assault-style" weapons and capped the number of rounds in a magazine to five.

-- VIRGINIA --
Permit to purchase: Not required for any firearms.

Firearm registration: Not required for any firearms.

License: Not required other than to carry a concealed handgun in public.

Handgun permit/license: Virginia's 95 county sheriffs review concealed carry permit applications on a "shall issue" basis.

Fee: $50. Breakdown: $10 to Superior Court for processing the application, $35 to local law enforcement for fingnerprints and background check, $5 to state police. Does not include costs of required training courses.

Duration: Five years.

Renewal: $35, plus local administrative costs.

Open carry: Open carry is permitted with the exception of loaded semi-automatic center-fire rifles or pistols equipped with a 20+ round magazine or designed to accommodate a silencer or equipped with a folding stock or shotgun with a 7+ round magazine in the cities of Alexandria, Chesapeake, Fairfax, Falls Church, Newport News, Norfolk, Richmond, and Virginia Beach and in the Counties of Arlington, Fairfax, Henrico, Loudoun, or Prince William.

State preemption: Only the state legislature can impose gun laws and regulations. Local governments may restrict the discharge of firearms.   

Assault weapons ban: "Assault weapons" are generally permitted, but some restrictions exist.

Legislative outlook: The Virginia House of Delegates approved a bill in late January that would see state agencies and employees forbidden from helping to enforce federal gun control measures in the state.
 
-- WASHINGTON --
Permit to purchase: Not required for any firearms.

Firearm registration: Not required for long guns. Retail dealers must record and report all retail pistol sales to local police/sheriff and to state department of licensing.

License: Not required other than to carry a concealed handgun in public.

Handgun permit/license: Washington's police departments and 39 county sheriffs review concealed carry permit applications on a "shall issue" basis.

Fee: $52.50. Breakdown: $15 for application, $4 for local agency administrative costs, $14 to state, $3 to firearms range account in state's general fund, plus $16.50 imposed by the FBI for fingerprints, background check. There are no training requirements.

Duration: Five years.

Renewal: $32.

Open carry: Open carry is lawful in Washington without any permit. Open carry of a loaded handgun in a vehicle is legal only with a concealed pistol license. Open carry of a loaded long gun in a vehicle is always illegal,

State preemption: Local governments are prohibited from imposing more restrictive gun laws than the state.   

Assault weapons ban: No.   

Legislative outlook: Washington lawmakers are seeking to expand background checks for gun sales with a stipulation that local law enforcement agencies destroy records of the search once it's complete. Opponents say transaction records would essentially provide a foundation for a registry of gun owners.

-- WEST VIRGINIA --
Permit to purchase: Not required for any firearms.

Firearm registration: Not required for any firearms.

License: Not required other than to carry a concealed handgun in public.

Handgun permit/license: West Virginia's 55 county sheriffs review concealed carry permit applications on a "shall issue" basis.

Fee: $105. Breakdown: $75 to the sheriff’s office, $25 to the West Virginia State Police for the criminal background check, and $5 for laminated permit card. Does not include the cost of required training courses.

Duration: Five years.

Renewal: $105.

Open carry: Open carry is generally permitted, but some local restrictions are grandfathered in.

State preemption: Local laws in place before June 1, 1999 are valid.   

Assault weapons ban: No.

Legislative outlook: The West Virginia Legislature approved a measure that makes clear that all such laws must be enacted at the state level. Ordinances that would be struck down include several enacted by Charleston in the 1990s. These limit handgun purchases to one per month, and require the buyer to wait 72 hours before receiving the weapon.

-- WISCONSIN --
Permit to purchase: Not required for any firearms.

Firearm registration: Not required for any firearms.

License: Not required other than to carry a concealed handgun in public.

Handgun permit/license: The Wisconsin Department of Justice reviews concealed carry permit applications on a "shall issue" basis.

Fee: $50. Breakdown: $37 to process application, $13 for criminal background check. Does not include the cost of required training courses.

Duration: Five years.

Renewal: $25, including another background check.

Open carry: May carry openly without a license (except in taxpayer-owned buildings, school zones, and "taverns")

State preemption: Only the state legislature can impose gun laws and regulations.   

Assault weapons ban: No.

Legislative outlook: No gun control bills are being considered, although legislators are reviewing the state's mental health system.

-- WYOMING --

Permit to purchase: Not required for any firearms.

Firearm registration: Not required for any firearms.

License: In July 2011, Wyoming became an unrestricted concealed carry state, following the example of Vermont, Alaska and Arizona. The state still issues concealed carry permits for reciprocal purposes with other states

Handgun permit/license: Wyoming's 23 county sheriffs review concealed carry permit applications on a "shall issue" basis.

Fee: $74. Does not include costs of required training courses.

Duration: Five years.

Renewal: $50.

Open carry: May carry open or concealed without permit. Permits issued to those who wish to have them.

State preemption: Only the state legislature can impose gun laws and regulations.   

Assault weapons ban: No.

Legislative outlook: The Wyoming House gave initial approval in January to a bill that would exempt guns in the state from new federal regulations.

Comments (20)

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from bigstonebeach wrote 35 weeks 1 day ago

Please change your comment on open carry in Delaware. No permit is needed here to open carry except in Dover and Lewes where it is unlawful to open carry at all. We are an open carry state. No municipality can pass carry laws except those established prior to 1983. Thank you.

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from compshoot61 wrote 1 year 2 weeks ago

South Dakota info is still off a little. The description given is for the concealed carry permit. There is no permit or license to purchase. In addition, many Sheriffs issue a temporary card on the spot so you can carry while you wait for your state issued card. No state income tax, great hunting, firearms friendly, great hardworking people, great firearms laws including limits on manufacturer liability laws. Firearms preemption laws! Manufacturers should put South Dakota on the top of their short list.

-1 Good Comment? | | Report
from Mark Vanderberg wrote 1 year 2 weeks ago

Not sure about the rest of the states but a lot of wrong information for Indiana.

Indiana does not require training, fingerprints and FBI check are included in license to carry fee.

In Indiana it is not a permit. It is a "License To Carry Handgun" Can be carried open or concealed.

0 Good Comment? | | Report
from schmakenzie wrote 1 year 2 weeks ago

I think there is a problem when society tries to remain legal while not understanding if they are or not. There are too many confusing gun laws and when a professional editor runs into this confusion, imagine what could happen to an every day Joe that is just wanting to take his family hunting. It's crap and I am sick of it. Sure I vote and am a member of the NRA and I guess it could be worse. But geez.......

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from Bill Tobey wrote 1 year 2 weeks ago

Your info on New Hampshire is incorrect. No permit is required to purchase a handgun. A Pistol & Revolver license is only needed if you wish to carry a concealed loaded weapon.

One other small point: In small towns without a local police department, Pistol & Revolver licenses are issued by town selectmen.

+1 Good Comment? | | Report
from voiceofreasoncny wrote 1 year 2 weeks ago

The information regarding the NY SAFE (Screwed All Firearms Enthusiasts) Act should not be taken as gospel, since several law suits are making their way through the courts and legislators who voted in favor of this, really poorly thought out, and even more poorly written, law are scrambling to propose amendments in a vain attempt to keep from getting voted out of office in the next election cycle.
So far, over fifty of the sixty two counties in New York (and too many municipalities to count) have either passed, or, are in the process of passing, resolutions asking for the repeal of this legislative debacle. Obvious flaws with this bad law are that there is no exemption for law enforcement/military and the worst part is the TENS OF MILLIONS of dollars in unfunded mandates that this law dumps on local governments.
Does it really surprise anyone that Bumbling Joe Biden has no clue about the real world costs of supporting the U.S.Constitution? Good thing Syracuse University has their Basketball and Lacrosse teams to be proud of.

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from Buckshott00 wrote 1 year 2 weeks ago

Thank you for the article. John Haughey however your info about Michigan is out of date. There is no longer a permit to purchase required for purchasing a handgun (with some exceptions) and you no longer have to register a handgun purchased from an FFL either.

THanks!

0 Good Comment? | | Report
from Dhoovak wrote 1 year 2 weeks ago

In Georgia, there is no required training course as noted in the article. Overall, I think John Haughey did a good job with the article, given all of the variations between states and within states by county and city. I hope this will be re-published with corrections after all comments are researched and corrections made.

0 Good Comment? | | Report
from David B Traver ... wrote 1 year 2 weeks ago

This here liberal Vermonter wants to point out that what's arguably the most liberal state in the nation actually lives out the liberal ideal, and lets law-abiding people go about their business in peace.

I also understand that where you have big cities, it's probably not a great idea to let just anyone buy a handgun,and my buddy with an operational M1919 Browning does still have some hoops to jump through, as well he should.

0 Good Comment? | | Report
from JerseyMedic wrote 1 year 3 weeks ago

The prices for NJ are off and the "lifetime" firearms ID card is misrepresented. Initially, you have to pay (approx) $60 for fingerprinting, $20 for the NJSP background check, $4 for each handgun purchase permit. You'll probably get your FID card in 90-120 days, pistol purchase permits are valid for 90 days (with a possible extension). Oh, and if you move within the state you have to "change the address" on your FID card which involves another $20 for another NJSP background check and another 60-120 day wait. I'm currently about 30 days into waiting for my address change on my FID... Oh, what fun...

0 Good Comment? | | Report
from Michael Fitzsimmons wrote 1 year 3 weeks ago

As a Pennsylvania resident (specifically Delaware County) I wanted to add to it that it cost me roughly $45 dollars for my permit, I dont know where the cost of $20 was found but it may be worth looking into it a bit further.

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from DSMbirddog wrote 1 year 3 weeks ago

This is quite an interesting listing. Thanks for doing the leg work. Nobody ever said Joe Biden cared about facts or accuracy that I can recall.

+1 Good Comment? | | Report
from huntfishtrap wrote 1 year 3 weeks ago

So Joe Biden doesn't always know what he's talking about when it comes to gun laws? How shocking!

+2 Good Comment? | | Report
from Walleye1976 wrote 1 year 3 weeks ago

Thanks for correcting it. interesting read though its amazing the differences between states

0 Good Comment? | | Report
from IND_NRA wrote 1 year 3 weeks ago

Explain how Indiana has one hundred and two county sheriff's with only ninety two counties?

+1 Good Comment? | | Report
from Alex Robinson wrote 1 year 3 weeks ago

Hey Walleye, the info for South Dakota has been corrected. Thanks!

+2 Good Comment? | | Report
from idduckhntr wrote 1 year 3 weeks ago

I thank the good Lord every day that I live in Idaho.

+1 Good Comment? | | Report
from schmakenzie wrote 1 year 3 weeks ago

Very helpful.

+1 Good Comment? | | Report
from Walleye1976 wrote 1 year 3 weeks ago

also not sure why we would pay North Dakota to get a concealed carry in South Dakota. I think you should relook at your info and correct it.

0 Good Comment? | | Report
from Walleye1976 wrote 1 year 3 weeks ago

I am not sure where you got the info for South Dakota and unless they recently changed the laws which I am unaware of. It costs 10 dollars for a concealed carry permit. They do a background check and that is it no fingerprinting or anything else. It literally takes 5 minutes at the sheriffs office and in a week or two you get your card in the mail.

-1 Good Comment? | | Report

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from Alex Robinson wrote 1 year 3 weeks ago

Hey Walleye, the info for South Dakota has been corrected. Thanks!

+2 Good Comment? | | Report
from huntfishtrap wrote 1 year 3 weeks ago

So Joe Biden doesn't always know what he's talking about when it comes to gun laws? How shocking!

+2 Good Comment? | | Report
from schmakenzie wrote 1 year 3 weeks ago

Very helpful.

+1 Good Comment? | | Report
from idduckhntr wrote 1 year 3 weeks ago

I thank the good Lord every day that I live in Idaho.

+1 Good Comment? | | Report
from IND_NRA wrote 1 year 3 weeks ago

Explain how Indiana has one hundred and two county sheriff's with only ninety two counties?

+1 Good Comment? | | Report
from DSMbirddog wrote 1 year 3 weeks ago

This is quite an interesting listing. Thanks for doing the leg work. Nobody ever said Joe Biden cared about facts or accuracy that I can recall.

+1 Good Comment? | | Report
from Bill Tobey wrote 1 year 2 weeks ago

Your info on New Hampshire is incorrect. No permit is required to purchase a handgun. A Pistol & Revolver license is only needed if you wish to carry a concealed loaded weapon.

One other small point: In small towns without a local police department, Pistol & Revolver licenses are issued by town selectmen.

+1 Good Comment? | | Report
from Walleye1976 wrote 1 year 3 weeks ago

also not sure why we would pay North Dakota to get a concealed carry in South Dakota. I think you should relook at your info and correct it.

0 Good Comment? | | Report
from Walleye1976 wrote 1 year 3 weeks ago

Thanks for correcting it. interesting read though its amazing the differences between states

0 Good Comment? | | Report
from Michael Fitzsimmons wrote 1 year 3 weeks ago

As a Pennsylvania resident (specifically Delaware County) I wanted to add to it that it cost me roughly $45 dollars for my permit, I dont know where the cost of $20 was found but it may be worth looking into it a bit further.

0 Good Comment? | | Report
from JerseyMedic wrote 1 year 3 weeks ago

The prices for NJ are off and the "lifetime" firearms ID card is misrepresented. Initially, you have to pay (approx) $60 for fingerprinting, $20 for the NJSP background check, $4 for each handgun purchase permit. You'll probably get your FID card in 90-120 days, pistol purchase permits are valid for 90 days (with a possible extension). Oh, and if you move within the state you have to "change the address" on your FID card which involves another $20 for another NJSP background check and another 60-120 day wait. I'm currently about 30 days into waiting for my address change on my FID... Oh, what fun...

0 Good Comment? | | Report
from David B Traver ... wrote 1 year 2 weeks ago

This here liberal Vermonter wants to point out that what's arguably the most liberal state in the nation actually lives out the liberal ideal, and lets law-abiding people go about their business in peace.

I also understand that where you have big cities, it's probably not a great idea to let just anyone buy a handgun,and my buddy with an operational M1919 Browning does still have some hoops to jump through, as well he should.

0 Good Comment? | | Report
from Dhoovak wrote 1 year 2 weeks ago

In Georgia, there is no required training course as noted in the article. Overall, I think John Haughey did a good job with the article, given all of the variations between states and within states by county and city. I hope this will be re-published with corrections after all comments are researched and corrections made.

0 Good Comment? | | Report
from Buckshott00 wrote 1 year 2 weeks ago

Thank you for the article. John Haughey however your info about Michigan is out of date. There is no longer a permit to purchase required for purchasing a handgun (with some exceptions) and you no longer have to register a handgun purchased from an FFL either.

THanks!

0 Good Comment? | | Report
from voiceofreasoncny wrote 1 year 2 weeks ago

The information regarding the NY SAFE (Screwed All Firearms Enthusiasts) Act should not be taken as gospel, since several law suits are making their way through the courts and legislators who voted in favor of this, really poorly thought out, and even more poorly written, law are scrambling to propose amendments in a vain attempt to keep from getting voted out of office in the next election cycle.
So far, over fifty of the sixty two counties in New York (and too many municipalities to count) have either passed, or, are in the process of passing, resolutions asking for the repeal of this legislative debacle. Obvious flaws with this bad law are that there is no exemption for law enforcement/military and the worst part is the TENS OF MILLIONS of dollars in unfunded mandates that this law dumps on local governments.
Does it really surprise anyone that Bumbling Joe Biden has no clue about the real world costs of supporting the U.S.Constitution? Good thing Syracuse University has their Basketball and Lacrosse teams to be proud of.

0 Good Comment? | | Report
from schmakenzie wrote 1 year 2 weeks ago

I think there is a problem when society tries to remain legal while not understanding if they are or not. There are too many confusing gun laws and when a professional editor runs into this confusion, imagine what could happen to an every day Joe that is just wanting to take his family hunting. It's crap and I am sick of it. Sure I vote and am a member of the NRA and I guess it could be worse. But geez.......

0 Good Comment? | | Report
from Mark Vanderberg wrote 1 year 2 weeks ago

Not sure about the rest of the states but a lot of wrong information for Indiana.

Indiana does not require training, fingerprints and FBI check are included in license to carry fee.

In Indiana it is not a permit. It is a "License To Carry Handgun" Can be carried open or concealed.

0 Good Comment? | | Report
from bigstonebeach wrote 35 weeks 1 day ago

Please change your comment on open carry in Delaware. No permit is needed here to open carry except in Dover and Lewes where it is unlawful to open carry at all. We are an open carry state. No municipality can pass carry laws except those established prior to 1983. Thank you.

0 Good Comment? | | Report
from Walleye1976 wrote 1 year 3 weeks ago

I am not sure where you got the info for South Dakota and unless they recently changed the laws which I am unaware of. It costs 10 dollars for a concealed carry permit. They do a background check and that is it no fingerprinting or anything else. It literally takes 5 minutes at the sheriffs office and in a week or two you get your card in the mail.

-1 Good Comment? | | Report
from compshoot61 wrote 1 year 2 weeks ago

South Dakota info is still off a little. The description given is for the concealed carry permit. There is no permit or license to purchase. In addition, many Sheriffs issue a temporary card on the spot so you can carry while you wait for your state issued card. No state income tax, great hunting, firearms friendly, great hardworking people, great firearms laws including limits on manufacturer liability laws. Firearms preemption laws! Manufacturers should put South Dakota on the top of their short list.

-1 Good Comment? | | Report

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