- Conservation Reserve Program (CRP): With its $2.1 billion annual budget, it pays farmers annual rental payments to take land out of production and establish grass and woody cover. Originally a program to combat soil erosion, CRP has transformed into the nation's largest habitat restoration program on private lands. It now cover 24 million acres nationwide, primarily in the Midwest and Great Plains.
- Working Lands Program: The Environmental Quality Incentive Program (EQIP) and Conservation Stewardship Program (CSP) pay farmers to install and maintain conservation-based practices on working crop, livestock, and forestlands. Though the majority of program funding and acreage involve soil improvement and nutrient management priorities, EQIP and CSP also help to restore and manage a large volume of wildlife habitat acres while helping to keep streams and waterways clean. EQIP and CSP have a combined annual budget of $3 billion on more than 80 million acres.
- Voluntary Public Access and Habitat Incentive Program (VPA-HIP): This is a competitive grant program that incentivizes state and tribal governments to pay landowners for public access to private lands for hunting, fishing, and other recreation activities. With a relatively modest $20 million in annual spending, the program provides sportsmen's access to private hunting and fishing habitat on nearly a million acres nationwide.
- Agricultural Conservation Easement Program (ACEP): Private landowners voluntarily enroll in ACEP to restore and preserve wetlands, forests, and grasslands for long periods of time. Special attention is paid to wetland restoration and preservation for waterfowl. The former Wetland Reserve Program, now part of ACEP, has assisted 11,000 landowners in establishing more 2.3 million acres of wetland habitat. In 2017, ACEP spent $250 million to support land conservation activities.
- Regional Conservation and Partnership Program (RCPP): RCPP supplies matching dollars from the Farm Bill to support local and regional efforts between conservation organizations and agricultural producers to meet conservation goals. The program supports public-private partnerships that achieve wildlife, water quality, and soil health objectives. In 2017, RCPP had a $354 million budget.