For example, at 40 yards, the full-choke pattern, in 12-gauge, has opened up to an approximate 45 inches in diameter. A field load of 1 1/8 ounces would put 462 pellets of No. 8 shot in that circle. Sounds good so far. Now let's make that circle intercept a dove, flying at 65 feet per second (fps), and forget about things like shot stringing for the time-being. Muzzle velocity of the shot charge would be about 1,200 fps. The lead required is roughly 9.3 feet. Whoops! Missed that one, did we? Shoot again. The dove is at 60 yards now. The lead? If you said 15 feet, you shot behind the bird. Don't feel bad. You're not alone.