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Where to Shoot a Deer for One-Shot Kills

July 04, 2013
Where to Shoot a Deer for One-Shot Kills - 6

To kill an animal with a single shot is the goal of every responsible hunter. Most of us were taught to put a bullet in the “boiler room,” the heart and lungs. But should we be aiming elsewhere? We asked a number of deer cullers, those sharpshooters whose job requires them to kill deer quickly, for their perspectives on bullet placement. Their advice, detailed below, is: “It depends.” On distance, bullet type, shooting ability, and even meat retention.

When you sharpshoot deer for a living, as Grant Woods did for 21 years, “you can’t afford misses or wounded deer running around,” he says. Both cost you time and money—especially a wounded, bleeding deer, running for its life and spooking other deer.

How do you guarantee a drop-it-where-it-stands shot? For Anthony DeNicola, owner of White Buffalo, a top deer-control operation, it’s all about the brain.

“Draw a line from tear duct to tear duct, then go 2.5 to 2.75 inches above that line, centered,” says DeNicola. “That’s where you want to place your bullet—first and best option.”

A bullet in the brain instantly incapacitates the animal; death follows in seconds. Of course, DeNicola and his team have an advantage over hunters: They shoot at night with infrared optics, from raised, mobile platforms, over bait, at known distances (usually 50 to 60 yards), and (where legal) with suppressed rifles.

DeNicola uses .223-caliber rifles, firing 50- to 55-grain frangible varmint projectiles that expend all their energy into the brainpan. In the urban and suburban environments in which he works, DeNicola can’t afford to have a round exiting an animal.

Second option: A brain shot from the side. Third: A shot just below the back of the skull in the first four cervical vertebrae of the spine.

“The deer drop immediately,” DeNicola says of the vertebrae shot. “Heart and lung functions will cease. They lose consciousness and die in eight to 12 seconds.”
If he’s only got a shot lower down on the neck, DeNicola will usually wait for a better option. In his business, body shots are way too risky.

The Double-Shoulder Shot
Woods, a noted whitetail biologist, did much of his deer-­control work on golf courses. There, shots usually ranged between 200 and 300 yards. His first choice was the double-shoulder shot, with a .308 round entering a shoulder blade on one side, slamming through the body and into the far shoulder blade.

“If you watch slow-motion video of a deer being shot this way, its whole body flexes when the bullet hits,” says Woods. “That snaps the spine. That deer’s never going to move again.”

What does all this mean for hunters? Well, forget the head shot, advises Chad Stewart, a deer biologist for the Indiana Department of Natural Resources who worked for two deer-control operations and sees plenty of hunter-killed deer in his job.

“If a deer is facing you and you’re on the ground and aiming for the brain cavity,” says Stewart, “a half inch too low and you’re going to hit the nose. A half inch too high will be over its head.”

Stewart recommends the placement most of us grew up learning, the boiler-room shot, through the heart-lung area with the deer standing broadside. Even if you’re a couple of inches off, you still hit vital organs. But even with a solid hit, a decent percentage of deer will run off, requiring that hunters follow a blood trail to recover the animal.

For his own recreational deer hunting, Woods still likes the double-­shoulder shot and the larger target it provides. It can damage more meat than the heart-lung approach, “but you’re much more likely to recover your deer with that double-­shoulder shot,” Woods says. “You’re not saving any meat if you lose the deer.”

Where to Shoot

High Shoulder
Pros: The ultimate shock-and-awe shot. A big, fast-moving bullet will snap the spine, short-circuit the nervous system, break ribs, and anchor a deer with authority.
Cons: The volatile, upsetting bullets best suited for this shot damage a lot of meat, from the shoulder through the neck and upper backstrap. Plus, it’s easy to miss high when aiming here.

Heart-Lung
Pros: An ample target provides some forgiveness, meaning you don’t have to be pinpoint accurate to kill a deer. This shot creates massive hemorrhaging, so the blood trail is typically easy to find and follow.
Cons: If you clip only part of a single lung, the deer may recover. Plus, deer don’t always go down immediately with this shot, meaning that you often have to follow a blood trail. Light bullets that careen off a rib or shoulder bone aren’t always lethal.

Brain
Pros: A deer dies instantly when its brain takes a direct hit. Plus, there is very little meat lost to a head shot.
Cons: The brain is a tiny target, and it’s easy to miss the deer entirely or, worse, to wound it through the jaw.

Neck
Pros: A correctly placed bullet will kill with massive shock to the spinal cord and vertebrae while damaging very little meat.
Cons: The vital area on a neck shot is quite small. Hit low, and you will wound a deer with very little chance of recovery. Plus, this shot often merely paralyzes a deer, requiring a second shot or throat slit to finish the job.

Comments (6)

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from Roderick K. Purcell wrote 1 year 44 weeks ago

Heart-lung with a well constructed bullet is the best bet, no doubt. I've taken both elk and deer with head shots and neck shots, but only at close range and in "can't miss" circumstances when the ribcage was hidden by brush or snow. Head-on head shots should be avoided on elk, as their skulls can deflect a bullet. I've shot elk at the base of the ear (coup d' grace) with instant results.

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from Josey wrote 1 year 45 weeks ago

When we butchered cattle and hogs on the farm, we would draw 2 lines: one from the left ear and one from the right, each through the opposing eye. Where the 2 lines intersected each other is where the bullet would go. Worked every time, unless someone got nervous and fliched, sending the bullet into the nose, which is a bad deal when dealing with large domestic critters. Don't flinch. Make sure you know where the bullet is going to go. Practice.

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from peteyraymond wrote 1 year 45 weeks ago

Instead of saying “Draw a line from tear duct to tear duct, then go 2.5 to 2.75 inches above that line, centered,” wouldn't it be simpler to just say 1/2 or 3/4 or 1 inch (whichever) below the top of the head, centered? You wouldn't have to worry about drawing hypothetical lines through a live deer.

+1 Good Comment? | | Report
from Stubby1 wrote 1 year 45 weeks ago

As stated, it all depends on the position of the deer. If it's close and sideways, a neck shot, long distance a heart/lung shot.

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from JM wrote 1 year 45 weeks ago

Like some of them answered, "it depends." I prefer a heart/lung shot though.

+3 Good Comment? | | Report
from huntfishtrap wrote 1 year 45 weeks ago

With a bow, I go for the standard heart/lung shot, obviously. With a muzzleloader (the only type of gun I use for deer), I prefer kind of a modified high-shoulder shot. I try to put the bullet through the very top edge of the lungs, just below the spine, and slightly behind the "meaty" part of the shoulder. I've killed several deer with this shot placement, and all have been anchored in their tracks, with minimal meat loss.

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Post a Comment (200 characters or less)

from huntfishtrap wrote 1 year 45 weeks ago

With a bow, I go for the standard heart/lung shot, obviously. With a muzzleloader (the only type of gun I use for deer), I prefer kind of a modified high-shoulder shot. I try to put the bullet through the very top edge of the lungs, just below the spine, and slightly behind the "meaty" part of the shoulder. I've killed several deer with this shot placement, and all have been anchored in their tracks, with minimal meat loss.

+3 Good Comment? | | Report
from JM wrote 1 year 45 weeks ago

Like some of them answered, "it depends." I prefer a heart/lung shot though.

+3 Good Comment? | | Report
from peteyraymond wrote 1 year 45 weeks ago

Instead of saying “Draw a line from tear duct to tear duct, then go 2.5 to 2.75 inches above that line, centered,” wouldn't it be simpler to just say 1/2 or 3/4 or 1 inch (whichever) below the top of the head, centered? You wouldn't have to worry about drawing hypothetical lines through a live deer.

+1 Good Comment? | | Report
from Stubby1 wrote 1 year 45 weeks ago

As stated, it all depends on the position of the deer. If it's close and sideways, a neck shot, long distance a heart/lung shot.

0 Good Comment? | | Report
from Josey wrote 1 year 45 weeks ago

When we butchered cattle and hogs on the farm, we would draw 2 lines: one from the left ear and one from the right, each through the opposing eye. Where the 2 lines intersected each other is where the bullet would go. Worked every time, unless someone got nervous and fliched, sending the bullet into the nose, which is a bad deal when dealing with large domestic critters. Don't flinch. Make sure you know where the bullet is going to go. Practice.

0 Good Comment? | | Report
from Roderick K. Purcell wrote 1 year 44 weeks ago

Heart-lung with a well constructed bullet is the best bet, no doubt. I've taken both elk and deer with head shots and neck shots, but only at close range and in "can't miss" circumstances when the ribcage was hidden by brush or snow. Head-on head shots should be avoided on elk, as their skulls can deflect a bullet. I've shot elk at the base of the ear (coup d' grace) with instant results.

0 Good Comment? | | Report

Post a Comment (200 characters or less)

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